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Multi-Target Tracking Using a Vision Chip and its Applications to Real-Time Visual Measurem

Real-time image processing at high frame rates could play an important role in various visual measurement. Such image processing can be realized by using a high-speed vision system imaging at high frame rates and having appropriate algorithms processed at

Multi-TargetTrackingUsingaVisionChipanditsApplications

toReal-TimeVisualMeasurements

Paper:rb17-2-2277;February28,2005

Multi-TargetTrackingUsingaVisionChipanditsApplications

toReal-TimeVisualMeasurement

YoshihiroWatanabe,TakashiKomuro,ShingoKagami,andMasatoshiIshikawa

DepartmentofInformationPhysicsandComputing,UniversityofTokyo

7-3-1Hongo,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo113-8656,JapanE-mail:YoshihiroWatanabe@ipc.i.u-tokyo.ac.jp[ReceivedOctober17,2004;acceptedJanuary6,2005]

Real-timeimageprocessingathighframeratescouldplayanimportantroleinvariousvisualmeasurement.Suchimageprocessingcanberealizedbyusingahigh-speedvisionsystemimagingathighframeratesandhavingappropriatealgorithmsprocessedathighspeed.Weintroduceavisionchipforhigh-speedvisionandproposeamulti-targettrackingalgorithmforthevisionchiputilizingtheuniquefeatures.Wedescribetwovisualmeasurementapplications,targetcountingandrotationmeasurement.Bothmeasurementsen-ableexcellentmeasurementprecisionandhigh ex-ibilitybecauseofhigh-frame-ratevisualobservationachievable.Experimentalresultsshowtheadvantagesofvisionchipscomparedwithconventionalvisualsys-tems.

Keywords:targettracking,visionchip,real-timeimageprocessing,visualmeasurement

1.Introduction

Measurementusingvisionisusefulinwiderangeofap-plicationsbecausevisualsystemsenablecontactlessmea-surementandhighly exibleoperation.Inconventionalvision-basedsystems,however,whichmainlyconsistofcamerasforimagingandcomputersforprocessing,theframerateislimitedbythevideosignal,forexample,33msforNTSC,whichisaseriousconstraintontheper-formanceofvisualmeasurement.

Recently,asystemcalledhigh-speedvisionhasbeendevelopedtoovercomethisproblem.High-speedvisioncanovercometheframeratelimitationinconventionalvisualsystemsandenableshigh-speedimageprocessingwithover1000frames/http://doc.xuehai.netingthisdevice,someoftheadvantagesofreal-timevisualmeasurementsbecomeevi-dent.Forexample,targetsmovingathighspeedandwithirregularmotioncanbemeasuredwithhighprecision.Wecanalsocreatemechanicalsystemsforrobotcontrolandinspectionthatrespondtorapidchangesinthemotionofsuchobjects.

Inthispaper,weuseaso-calledvisionchip,whichisoneofthemostcommonlyusedcomponentsforim-plementinghigh-speedvision.Thevisionchipachieveshigh-speedvisualfeedbackat1kHzbyintegratingsen-sorsandprocessorstogetherinonechip.Therefore,aschipoutput,wecanobtainonlydesiredcharacteristicsofaninputimageinsteadoftheinputimageitself,whichallowshigh-frame-rateimaging.Also,thevisionchiphasseveralbene tssuchascompactness,lowcost,andlowpowerconsumptionbecauseitisaVLSI-basedsys-tem.Wehavedevelopedageneral-purposevisionchipthatconsistsofprogrammableprocessingelements[1].Weproposeamulti-targettrackingalgorithmforthevi-sionchipinthispaper.Thisenablessimultaneousobser-vationofmultipletargetsathighframerates.Wedevelopthealgorithmbyaddinganewlabelingalgorithmusingbinarysearchtoaconventionaltrackingalgorithmcalledself-windowing[2].Ouralgorithmutilizestheuniquefea-turesofthevisionchip,suchashigh-frame-rateimagingandpixelparalleloperation.

Tworeal-timevisualmeasurementsusingthevisionchiparealsodescribed.Bothofthemarebasedonmulti-targettrackingprocessinginthevisionchip.

Oneoftheapplicationsistargetcounting.Thisapplica-tioncountsthecumulativenumberoftargetscomingintosight.Thiscanalsocountonlydesiredtargets.Ataframerateof0.5kHz,wefoundexperimentallythatthemaxi-mumtargetspeedwas20km/h.Thiscountingtechniquecouldbeapplied,forexample,tohigh-speedinspectionofsmallcreaturesandcrops.

Anotherpossibleapplicationisthemeasurementofhigh-speedrotation.Inthisapplication,therotationaxisandrotationspeedofaballaremeasuredinreal-time.Asaresultofexperimentsat1kHzframerate,themaximumrotationspeedoftheobjectwas1200rpm.Webelievethatsuchrotationmeasurementcould ndapplicationsinballgames,suchassoccerandbaseball.

Insection2ofthispaper,webrie ydescribethevi-sionchipandtargettrackingstudies.Alsoincludedinsection3isadescriptionofthemulti-targettrackingal-gorithmdevelopedforthevisionchip.Insections4and5,weexplaintheexperimentalsystemandsomeresultsofourtargetcountingandrotationmeasurementalgorithms,respectively.Section6concludesourpaper.

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