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comparison between English and Chinese (1)

英语与汉语的比较

Topic 6 A Comparative Study of Chinese and English (Part I)

Teaching aims: to learn about the similarities and differences of Chinese and English in word forming and? vocabulary so as to translate them accurately.

Main Language points:

1. Comparative studies of vocabulary in Chinese and English

2. Comparative studies of word forming in English and Chinese.

3. Techniques employed in translating the differences. Teaching emphasis: the techniques employed in translating the differences.

Teaching references:

1. 孙致礼. 新编英汉翻译教程[M]. 上外教出版社;彭长江. 英汉-汉英翻译教程[M]. 湖南师大出版社;

2. 冯伟年,最新简明英语翻译教程[M],世界图书出版公司,2001

3. 陈宏薇,新编汉英翻译教程[M].上海外语教育出版社,2004

4. 张培基,《英汉翻译教程》,上海外语教育出版社,1983

Teaching methods: Analysis and Practice

Time arrangement: 2 periods

I. Lexical Comparison of Chinese and English

1、Comparison of script(文字对比):

English (alphabetic script)(只有词)

Chinese (ideographic-oriented syllabic script): (有字又有词)

象形字(pictograph),指事字(indicative character),会意字(associative character),形声字(morpheme-phonetic character)

2、Comparison of pronunciation

Chinese ( tonal language)

English (intonation language)

3、Comparison of word formation(见书上P36-41汉英)

4、Difference of morphology

English 有屈折变化(inflections):性、数、格、时、体、态、语气、人称、比较级等; Chinese 没有形态变化,但有量词(动量词)、语气词、形态助词;

II. Semantic comparison of Chinese and English(词义对比)

A、the meanings of the word(词的意义方面):

1、英语中有些词所表示的意义,在汉语里可以找到完全对应的词来表达。(semantic correspondence)

专用名词、术语和事物名称 。如:

The U.S. State Department (美国国务院);萨斯SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome);Aids (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) ;直升飞机;太平洋

2、英语中有些词与汉语中有些词在词义上只有部分对应。(partly semantic correspondence) 大象、龙

marriage,gun,uncle,aunt,bother,morning 等。

3、英语中有些词所表示的意义,目前在汉语里还找不到最后确定的对应词来表达。(semantic

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