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Synthesis and Shape Control of CuInS2 Nanoparticles

Synthesis and Shape Control of CuInS2 Nanoparticles

Synthesis and Shape Control of CuInS2Nanoparticles Marta Kruszynska,Holger Borchert,Ju¨rgen Parisi,and Joanna Kolny-Olesiak*

Uni V ersity of Oldenburg,Department of Physics,Energy and Semiconductor Research

Laboratory,Carl-V on-Ossietzky-Str.9-11,26129Oldenburg,Germany

Received May5,2010;E-mail:joanna.kolny@uni-oldenburg.de

Abstract:Cu2S-CuInS2hybrid nanostructures as well as pure CuInS2(CIS)nanocrystals were synthesized by methods of colloidal chemistry.The structure,the shape and the composition of these nanomaterials were investigated with transmission electron microscopy(TEM),powder X-ray diffraction(XRD)and energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX).By changing the reaction conditions,CuInS2nanorods with different aspect ratio,dimeric nanorods as well as hexagonal discs and P-shaped particles could be synthesized.Under our reaction conditions,CIS nanoparticles crystallize in the hexagonal wurtzite structure,as con?rmed by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns.The formation of Cu2S-CuInS2hybrid nanostructures turned out to be an essential intermediate step in the growth of CIS nanoparticles,the copper sulphide part of the hybrid material playing an important role in the shape control of the CIS nanocrystals.By a treatment of Cu2S-CuInS2with1,10-phenanthroline,Cu2S parts of the hybrid nanostructures could be removed,and pure CIS nanoparticles with shapes not accessible with other methods can be obtained. Our synthetic procedure turned out to be suitable to synthesize also other compounds,like CuInS2-ZnS alloys,and to modify,in this way,the optical properties of the nanocrystals.

1.Introduction

Semiconductor nanoparticles attract scienti?c attention due to their size and shape dependent properties.1,2Because of their tunable absorption and emission in the visible and IR range of the solar spectrum,semiconductor nanocrystals are considered as an interesting absorber material for solar cells,3-6they are used in light emitting diodes7or as?uorescence marker for biomolecules.8-10However,most of the best studied materials until now,like cadmium and lead chalcogenides,have a drawback of containing highly toxic components that severely restricts their possible applications.11,12A possible alternative material,being less toxic,but having a tunable absorption in the visible range,is copper indium disul?de(CIS),being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap of?1.5eV in the bulk material and an exciton radius of4nm.13It has high radiation stability and an extinction coef?cient of?105cm-1(at500 nm),14a value about10×higher than that for CdTe.15Therefore, CIS is already widely used in thin?lm solar cells conventionally prepared by sputtering or evaporation techniques.16-18

In contrast,there are only few reports about chemical synthesis of colloidal CIS nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and successful size or shape control.19CIS nanocrystals were synthe-sized by the reaction of copper and indium salts(chlorides,20-22 iodides,23and carboxylates13,19,23)with various sulfur sources (dithiocarbamates,24thiourea,22n-alkylthiols,13,23dithiols,25el-emental sulfur,19,26and carbon disul?de27)as well as by thermal

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Synthesis and Shape Control of CuInS2 Nanoparticles

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Published on Web10/19/2010

10.1021/ja103828f 2010American Chemical Society 159769J.AM.CHEM.SOC.2010,132,15976–15986

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