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Management of hazardous waste in Thailand- present situation and future prospects

J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2003) 5:31–38© Springer-Verlag 2003

Hiroaki Ozaki · Kusumakar Sharma · Chanetta Phanuwan Kensuke Fukushi · Chongrak Polprasert

Management of hazardous waste in Thailand: present situation and

Management of hazardous waste in Thailand- present situation and future prospects

future prospects

Received:February 26,2001 / Accepted:October 11,2002

AbstractThis paper deals with the present scenario of hazardous waste management practices in Thailand,andgives some insights into future prospects.Industrializationin Thailand has systematically increased the generation ofhazardous waste.The total hazardous waste generated in2001 was 1.65 million tons.t is estimated that over 300 million kg/year of hazardous waste is generated fromnonindustrial,community sources (e.g.,batteries, uores-cent lamps,cleansing chemicals,pesticides).No special facil-ities are available for handling these wastes.There areneither well-established systems for separation,storage,col-lection,and transportation,nor the effective enforcement ofregulations related to hazardous wastes management gen-erated from industrial or nonindustrial sectors.Therefore,because of a lack of treatment and disposal facilities,thesewastes nd their way into municipal wastewaters,publicland lls,nearby dump sites,or waterways,raising seriousenvironmental concern.Furthermore,Thailand does nothave an integrated regulatory framework regarding themonitoring and management of hazardous materials andwastes.In addition to the absence of a national de nition ofhazardous wastes,limited funding has caused signi cantimpediments to the effective management of hazardouswaste.Thus,current waste management practices in Thai-land present signi cant potential hazards to humans and theenvironment.The challenging issues of hazardous wastemanagement in Thailand are not only related to a scarcityof nancial resources (required for treatment and disposal

H.Ozaki (*)

Department of Civil Engineering,Osaka Sangyo University,3-1-1Nakagaito,Daito,Osaka 574-8530,Japan

Tel. 81-72-875-3001 (ext.3718);Fax 81-72-875-5044e-mail:ozaki@ce.osaka-sandai.ac.jp

K.Fukushi

Environmental Science Center,The University of Tokyo,Tokyo,Japan

C.Polprasert · K.Sharma · C.Phanuwan

Urban Environmental Engineering and Management Program,

School of Environment,Resources and Development,Asian Instituteof Technology,Pathumthani,Thailand

facilities),but also to the fact that there has been no devel-opment of appropriate technology following the principlesof waste minimization and sustainable development.Aholistic approach to achieving effective hazardous wastemanagement that integrates the efforts of all sectors,government,private,and community,is needed for the betterment of human health and the environment.

Key wordndustrial hazardous waste · Nonindustrial hazardous waste · Generation · Treatment · Disposal

Introduction

During the past decade,the production of solid waste andhazardous waste has increased alarmingly in Thailand,andis now a major environmental problem.With the shift inThailand’s economy towards industrialization,the numberof industries that produce hazardous wastes,in particular,has increased dramatically and at a faster rate.From the statistical records of the Department of Industrial Works(DIW),the number of factories in the country increasedrapidly from 86000 to 104996 during 1989–1996.It is esti-mated that the quantity of total waste (industrial,munici-pal,and hazardous) in the country in 1997–2017 will bebetween 41792 and 75481 ton/day.1The Pollution ControlDepartment (PCD) under the Ministry of Science,Tech-nology,and Environment (MOSTE) reported that the totalvolume of hazardous waste generated in Thailand in 2001was 1.65 million tons (PCD,personal communication,2001).Treatment and disposal facilities are not adequate tomeet the increasing volumes of toxic waste generated.Thedemand for storage,transport,treatment,and disposal ofcontinuously increasing waste generation has created anurgent need for environmental regulations and standards toensure public safety.The present regulations and standardsare either unavailable and/or insuf cient to regulate andmanage hazardous wastes which induce critical environ-mental problems.However,the problems and challenges ofhazardous waste management in Thailand can be overcome

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